Cl Element

  1. Cl Element Protons Neutrons Electrons
  2. What Is Chlorine Made Of
  3. Cl Element Symbol
  4. Chlorine Periodic Table
  5. Cl Element Periodic Table
Cl element

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Cl Element Protons Neutrons Electrons

  • What is Chlorine. Chlorine is a chemical element with atomic number 17 which means there are 17 protons and 17 electrons in the atomic structure. The chemical symbol for Chlorine is Cl. Chlorine is a yellow-green gas at room temperature. It is an extremely reactive element and a strong oxidising agent: among the elements, it has the highest electron affinity and the third-highest.
  • Chlorine is the second element in the seventeenth column of the periodic table. It is classified as a member of the halogen group. It has 17 electrons and 17 protons with 7 valence electrons in the outer shell. It is about the twentieth most abundant element in the Earth's crust.
  • The Element Chlorine - Known Isotopes. Most of the isotope data on this site has been obtained from the National Nuclear Data Center.Please visit their site for more information.
  • Chlorine is in group 17 of periodic table, also called the halogens, and is not found as the element in nature - only as a compound. The most common of these being salt, or sodium chloride, and the potassium compounds sylvite (or potassium chloride) and carnallite (potassium magnesium chloride hexahydrate).

Choosing the correct grade of stainless steel for a tank, pipe or process vessel requires (at the very least) information about the temperature, pH and chemical composition of the contents. One of the most important items of the chemical composition is how much chloride (salt) is present. Analysis reports often give the concentration as milligrams per litre (mg/L) or sometimes as parts per million (ppm) of Cl. However, Cl is also the symbol used for the element chlorine.


So what is the difference?


Chlorine is a poisonous, yellowish green gas which readily dissolves in water to give a strong disinfectant or bleach. The strength of a bleach solution is sometimes measured by the “available chlorine”. Swimming pools are usually treated with dilute hypochlorite solutions which produce a few parts per million (ppm) of chlorine. This acts as a strong, oxidising biocide. Drinking water is normally treated to give a residual of 0.2 to 0.5 mg/L of chlorine. (There are also other disinfection methods such as chloramine or ozone.)


Chlorine is very aggressive to stainless steels. The Nickel Institute guidelines for continuous exposure at ambient temperatures (~20˚C) and neutral pH (~ pH7), are that 304 can cope with 2ppm chlorine and 316 ~5ppm chlorine. In alkaline solutions (pH>7) higher concentrations are possible but this does not help much in swimming pools or drinking water. Chlorine frequently causes corrosion problems. Chlorine attack can occur with bleach laden washdown water if pools form in drains which are usually empty. Chlorine concentrations in droplets or water films immediately above a still pool or water tank can be higher than the chlorine level in the bulk water. When dosing concentrated chlorine into pipes or tanks, it must be well mixed otherwise concentrated streams will eat out downstream elbows or tank walls near the chlorine inlet.


Much higher concentrations can be used for short periods as the attack on the stainless steel must initiate and form a stable pit for failure to occur. The American Water and Wastewater Association permits 25ppm for 24 hours in cases of emergency disinfection. The food industry can use up to 100ppm in hot water for minutes followed by rinsing and/or passivation. It is an effective biocide because the kill rate depends on (exposure time) * (concentration of biocide) but the stainless steel is resistant to the chlorine for the relatively short, high concentration exposure.

What Is Chlorine Made Of


And what about chlorides?

Cl Element Symbol

Element


Chloride occurs naturally in drinking water and ranges from less than 10mg/L in Melbourne to more than 200mg/L in Adelaide. Chloride is not oxidizing and is not a biocide. The most common form is sodium chloride. Seawater is about 3% sodium chloride although there are other compounds. Nickel Institute guidelines for continuous exposure at neutral pH and ambient temperatures permit chloride levels of 200ppm for 304, 1000ppm for 316 and 3600 ppm for 2205 duplex. The guidelines allow for the presence of crevices (such as bolt heads, flanges or deposits) but assume that the surface has been passivated. In alkaline environments (pH>7) higher chloride levels can be tolerated. Higher temperatures reduce the permissible chloride level. Temperatures over 60˚C are not recommended for 304 or 316 as they are at risk of sudden failure from chloride stress corrosion cracking.


The message

Cl element


Chlorine and chloride are different forms of the same element but with vastly different effects on stainless steel. Chlorine is bleach and stainless steels can only tolerate exposure to a few ppm continuously. Chloride is part of the salt in natural waters and even 304 can cope with a few hundred ppm at ambient temperatures and pH~7.

Chlorine Periodic Table

Isotopes of the Element Chlorine

[Click for Main Data]

Most of the isotope data on this site has been obtained from the National Nuclear Data Center. Please visit their site for more information.

Isotopes With A Known Natural Abundance

Mass NumberNatural AbundanceHalf-life
3575.76%STABLE
3724.24%STABLE

Known Isotopes

Mass NumberHalf-lifeDecay ModeBranching Percentage
28No Data AvailableProton Emission (suspected)No Data Available
29< 20 nanosecondsProton EmissionNo Data Available
30< 30 nanosecondsProton EmissionNo Data Available
31150 millisecondsElectron Capture100.00%
Electron Capture with
delayed Proton Emission
0.70%
32298 millisecondsElectron Capture100.00%
Electron Capture with
delayed Alpha Decay
0.05%
Electron Capture with
delayed Proton Emission
0.03%
332.511 secondsElectron Capture100.00%
341.5264 secondsElectron Capture100.00%
34m32.00 minutesElectron Capture55.40%
Isomeric Transition44.60%
35STABLE--
363.01×10+5 yearsElectron Capture1.90%
Beta-minus Decay98.10%
37STABLE--
3837.24 minutesBeta-minus Decay100.00%
38m715 millisecondsIsomeric Transition100.00%
3956.2 minutesBeta-minus Decay100.00%
401.35 minutesBeta-minus Decay100.00%
4138.4 secondsBeta-minus Decay100.00%
426.8 secondsBeta-minus Decay100.00%
433.13 secondsBeta-minus Decay100.00%
440.56 secondsBeta-minus Decay100.00%
Beta-minus Decay with
delayed Neutron Emission
< 8.00%
45413 millisecondsBeta-minus Decay100.00%
Beta-minus Decay with
delayed Neutron Emission
24.00%
46232 millisecondsBeta-minus Decay with
delayed Neutron Emission
60.00%
Beta-minus Decay100.00%
47101 millisecondsBeta-minus Decay100.00%
Beta-minus Decay with
delayed Neutron Emission
> 0.00%
48>= 200 nanosecondsBeta-minus DecayNo Data Available
49>= 170 nanosecondsBeta-minus DecayNo Data Available
50> 620 nanosecondsBeta-minus DecayNo Data Available
Beta-minus Decay with
delayed Neutron Emission
No Data Available
51> 200 nanosecondsBeta-minus DecayNo Data Available

Cl Element Periodic Table

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