Ge Periodic Table

Element Germanium - Ge

Germanium is a chemical element with the symbol Ge and atomic number 32. It is a lustrous, hard-brittle, grayish-white metalloid in the carbon group, chemically similar to its group neighbors silicon and tin. Ge Germanium 72.630: 33 As Arsenic 74.921595: 34 Se Selenium 78.971: 35 Br Bromine 79.904: 36 Kr. This periodic table is created by Dr Kaisa Helttunen and Heikki.

Comprehensive data on the chemical element Germanium is provided on this page; including scores of properties, element names in many languages, most known nuclides of Germanium. Common chemical compounds are also provided for many elements. In addition technical terms are linked to their definitions and the menu contains links to related articles that are a great aid in one's studies.

Germanium Menu

  • Germanium Page One
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Overview of Germanium

  • Atomic Number: 32
  • Group: 14
  • Period: 4
  • Series: Metalloids (Metals)

Germanium's Name in Other Languages

  • Latin: Germanium
  • Czech: Germanium
  • Croatian: Germanij
  • French: Germanium
  • German: Germanium - s
  • Italian: Germanio
  • Norwegian: Germanium
  • Portuguese: Germânio
  • Russian: Германий
  • Spanish: Germánio
  • Swedish: Germanium

Atomic Structure of Germanium

  • Atomic Radius: 1.52Å
  • Atomic Volume: 13.6cm3/mol
  • Covalent Radius: 1.22Å
  • Cross Section (Thermal Neutron Capture)σa/barns: 2.2
  • Crystal Structure: Cubic face centered
  • Electron Configuration:
    1s2 2s2p6 3s2p6d10 4s2p2
  • Electrons per Energy Level: 2,8,18,4
    Shell Model
  • Ionic Radius: 0.53Å
  • Filling Orbital: 4p2
  • Number of Electrons (with no charge): 32
  • Number of Neutrons (most common/stable nuclide): 41
  • Number of Protons: 32
  • Oxidation States: 4
  • Valence Electrons: 4s2p2
    Electron Dot Model

Chemical Properties of Germanium

  • Electrochemical Equivalent: 0.6771g/amp-hr
  • Electron Work Function: 5eV
  • Electronegativity: 2.01 (Pauling); 2.02 (Allrod Rochow)
  • Heat of Fusion: 36.94kJ/mol
  • Incompatibilities:
    Acids
  • Ionization Potential
    • First: 7.899
    • Second: 15.934
    • Third: 34.22
  • Valence Electron Potential (-eV): 109
Periodic

Physical Properties of Germanium

Ge periodic table of elements
  • Atomic Mass Average: 72.61
  • Boiling Point: 3103K 2830°C 5126°F
  • Coefficient of lineal thermal expansion/K-1: 5.57E-6
  • Conductivity
    Electrical: 1.45E-8 106/cm Ω
    Thermal: 0.599 W/cmk
  • Density: 5.323g/cc @ 300K
  • Description:
    Hard brittle grayish-white metalloid that is stable in air and water. It is unaffected by acids (except HNO3) and alkalis.
  • Elastic Modulus:
    • Rigidity: 29.6/GPa
    • Youngs: 79.9/GPa
  • Enthalpy of Atomization: 376.6 kJ/mole @ 25°C
  • Enthalpy of Fusion: 34.7 kJ/mole
  • Enthalpy of Vaporization: 334.3 kJ/mole
  • Flammablity Class: Combustible Solid, fine dust is easily ignited
  • Freezing Point:see melting point
  • Hardness Scale
    • Mohs: 6
  • Heat of Vaporization: 330.9kJ/mol
  • Melting Point: 1210.55K 937.4°C 1719.3°F
  • Molar Volume: 13.57 cm3/mole
  • Physical State (at 20°C & 1atm): Solid
  • Specific Heat: 0.32J/gK
  • Vapor Pressure = [email protected]°C

Regulatory / Health

Table
  • CAS Number
    • 7440-56-4
  • RTECS: 1008063GE
  • OSHAPermissible Exposure Limit (PEL)
    • No limits set by OSHA
  • OSHA PEL Vacated 1989
    • No limits set by OSHA
  • NIOSHRecommended Exposure Limit (REL)
    • No limits set by NIOSH
  • Levels In Humans:
    Note: this data represents naturally occuring levels of elements in the typical human, it DOES NOT represent recommended daily allowances.
    • Blood/mg dm-3: 0.44
    • Bone/p.p.m: n/a
    • Liver/p.p.m: 0.15
    • Muscle/p.p.m: 0.14
    • Daily Dietary Intake: 0.4-1.5 mg
    • Total Mass In Avg. 70kg human: 5 mg

Who / Where / When / How

  • Discoverer: Clemens A Winkler
  • Discovery Location: Freiberg Germany
  • Discovery Year: 1886
  • Name Origin:
    Latin: Germania (Germany).
  • Abundance of Germanium:
    • Earth's Crust/p.p.m.: 1.8
    • Seawater/p.p.m.:
      • Atlantic Suface: 7E-08
      • Atlantic Deep: 1.4E-07
      • Pacific Surface: 3.5E-07
      • Pacific Deep: 0.000006
    • Atmosphere/p.p.m.: N/A
    • Sun (Relative to H=1E12): 3160
  • Sources of Germanium:
    Obtained from refining copper, zinc and lead. Annual world wide production is around 80 tons.
  • Uses of Germanium:
    Widely used in semiconductors, infrared prisms, reflectors in projectors, wide angle lenses and dentistry.
  • Additional Notes:
    In the elemental form it is a lustrous white, brittle metaloid. When crystalized it has a diamond cubic structure. It is a poor conductor and is used in electronics in rectifying devices and transistors. It is also used in dental alloys. There are several compounds which contain germanium. 'Germaine' or germanium hydride is a colorless gas GeH4 prepared by the action of lithium aluminum hydride on germanium halide in an ether solution. Germaine is a hazardous substance UN2192 which is classified as a poisonous gas (2.3). It is also a flammable gas (2.1). Other compounds include: Germanium dichloride Ge Cl2, Germanium dioxide GeO2, Germanium tetrachloride GeCl4 this is very irritating to eyes and membranes.

Germanium Menu

  • Germanium Page One
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References

A list of reference sources used to compile the data provided on our periodic table of elements can be found on the main periodic table page.

Related Resources

  • Anatomy of the Atom
    Answers many questions regarding the structure of atoms.
  • Molarity, Molality and Normality
    Introduces stoichiometry and explains the differences between molarity, molality and normality.
  • Molar Mass Calculations and Javascript Calculator
    Molar mass calculations are explained and there is a JavaScript calculator to aid calculations.
  • Chemical Database
    This database focuses on the most common chemical compounds used in the home and industry.

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The elements of the periodic table sorted by ionization energy

click on any element's name for further information on chemical properties, environmental data or health effects.

This list contains the 118 elements of chemistry.

The chemical elements of
the periodic chart sorted by:
Ionization EnergyName chemical elementSymbolAtomic number
- Name alphabetically3,8939CesiumCs55
- Atomic number4,0727FranciumFr87
- Symbol4,1771RubidiumRb37
- Atomic Mass4,3407PotassiumK19
- Electronegativity4,9LawrenciumLr103
- Density5,1391SodiumNa11
- Melting point5,17ActiniumAc89
- Boiling point5,2117BariumBa56
- Vanderwaals radius5,2784RadiumRa88
- Year of discovery5,3917LithiumLi3
- Inventor surname5,4259LutetiumLu71
- Elements in earthcrust5,473PraseodymiumPr59
- Elements in human body5,525NeodymiumNd60
- Covalenz radius5,5387CeriumCe58
- Ionization energy5,5769LanthanumLa57

For chemistry students and teachers: The tabular chart on the right is arranged by Ionization energy.

The first chemical element is Cesium and the last one is Helium.

The unity for ionization energy is eV.

Please note that the elements do not show their natural relation towards each other as in the Periodic system. There you can find the metals, semi-conductor(s), non-metal(s), inert noble gas(ses), Halogens, Lanthanoides, Actinoids (rare earth elements) and transition metals.

5,582PromethiumPm61
5,6437SamariumSm62
5,6704EuropiumEu63
5,6949StrontiumSr38
5,7864IndiumIn49
5,8638TerbiumTb65
5,89ProtactiniumPa91
5,9389DysprosiumDy66
5,9738AmericiumAm95
5,9858AluminumAl13
5,9915CuriumCm96
5,9993GalliumGa31
6,0215HolmiumHo67
6,0262PlutoniumPu94
6,1077ErbiumEr68
6,1082ThalliumTl81
6,1132CalciumCa20
6,1501GadoliniumGd64
6,1843ThuliumTm69
6,1941UraniumU92
6,1979BerkeliumBk97
6,2173YttriumY39
6,2542YtterbiumYb70
6,2657NeptuniumNp93
6,2817CaliforniumCf98
6,3067ThoriumTh90
6,42EinsteiniumEs99
6,5FermiumFm100
6,5615ScandiumSc21
6,58MendeleviumMd101
6,6339ZirconiumZr40
6,65NobeliumNo102
6,7462VanadiumV23
6,7589NiobiumNb41
6,7665ChromiumCr24
6,8251HafniumHf72
6,8281TitaniumTi22
7,0924MolybdenumMo42
7,28TechnetiumTc43
7,2856BismuthBi83
7,3439TinSn50
7,3605RutheniumRu44
7,4167LeadPb82
7,434ManganeseMn25
7,4589RhodiumRh45
7,5496TantalumTa73
7,5762SilverAg47
7,6398NickelNi28
7,6462MagnesiumMg12
7,7264CopperCu29
7,8335RheniumRe75
7,864TungstenW74
7,881CobaltCo27
7,8994GermaniumGe32
7,9024IronFe26
8,1517SiliconSi14
8,298BoronB5
8,3369PalladiumPd46
8,417PoloniumPo84
8,4382OsmiumOs76
8,6084AntimonySb51
8,9587PlatinumPt78
8,967IridiumIr77
8,9938CadmiumCd48
9,0096TelluriumTe52
9,2255GoldAu79
9,3AstatineAt85
9,3227BerylliumBe4
9,3942ZincZn30
9,7524SeleniumSe34
9,7886ArsenicAs33
10,36SulfurS16
10,4375MercuryHg80
10,4513IodineI53
10,4867PhosphorusP15
10,7485RadonRn86
11,2603CarbonC6
11,8138BromineBr35
12,1298XenonXe54
12,9676ChlorineCl17
13,5984HydrogenH1
13,6181OxygenO8
13,9996KryptonKr36
14,5341NitrogenN7
15,7596ArgonAr18
17,4228FluorineF9
21,5645NeonNe10
24,5874HeliumHe2
RutherfordiumRf104
DubniumDb105
SeaborgiumSg106
BohriumBh107
HassiumHs108
MeitneriumMt109
DarmstadtiumDs110
RoentgeniumRg111
UnunbiumUub112
UnuntriumUut113
UnunquadiumUuq114
UnunpentiumUup115
UnunhexiumUuh116
UnunseptiumUus117
UnunoctiumUuo118

What Is The Lewis Symbol For Germanium

Ge periodic table mass

Click here: for a schematic overview of the periodic table of elements in chart form

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